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Video Surveillance System Solution for Urban Rail Transit Control Center and Subway Route


        With the rapid development of large-scale urban construction, the city ground traffic is faced with ever increasing pressure; therefore, the development of public transport and rail transit have become the priority among priorities in urban construction. Rail transit has increasingly become the preferred way to travel for people due to advantages such as being convenient, time saving and arriving on time. Big cities usually have a dozen or even dozens of rail transit lines planned and constructed; as each line is constructed independently, therefore the urban rail transit control center will have to integrate the resources of various lines reasonably and effectively.
        As a unified operation, control and display output platform over the rail transit of the whole city, the video surveillance system platform of the urban rail transit control center, by realizing the decoding and output of all the compressed video connected to the encoders of various transit lines (including HD IP Cameras) by means of a set of hardware decoding system, can realize all the operation and control functions required for the daily operation and control of all the video surveillance resources connected to the transit lines. The video surveillance system platform of the urban rail transit control center is an upper network built upon the network of various operating lines of the urban rail transit, which makes it possible to share resources of various transit lines, without being responsible for the management of equipment of individual lines and without disturbing their independent operation.
        The diagram of networking subsystems of the video surveillance system of urban rail transit is shown in the figure below.

Figure 1 Diagram of Network Connections

        The video surveillance system of the rail transit control center can be networked with the video surveillance systems of various transit lines and thus digital stream of real-time or stored audio and video data can be obtained from the network, then decoded and output; meanwhile it allows remote PTZ and lens control of the front dome camera. The system platform mainly consists of platform management server, networked control unit, universal video hardware decoder for digital video stream of multi-suppliers (hereinafter referred to as universal decoder), large screen display device and analog monitor, operation and control terminal, standby operation and control keyboard, video playback equipment, video storage equipment, network connection equipment (network switches, firewall, etc.).
        The networked control unit is the core switching equipment of this platform, which serves as the logical entity for implementing connection and interface sharing with the service layer of the video surveillance network of various transit lines. The networked control unit is responsible for the session control command, the transmission and conversion of media stream and network management data in the process of networking with various manufacturers’ systems while supporting international standard video encoding systems such as MPEG-2, MPEG4, and H.264, etc. In addition, the universal video decoder is another key equipment. For the urban rail transit control center, it is required to monitor continuously for long time the video images of each rail transit line of the whole city, and to ensure the smooth and continuous output of high quality images; therefore, a hardware decoder is used to realize the decoding and output of digital video and to provide a steady video output for the large screen analog monitor. To support the display output of SD and HD videos, the decoder shall provide HDMI interface for HD video, which supports various output resolutions of videos, including standard definition (D1, 720*576), high definition (HD, 1280*720), full high definition (Full HD,1920*1080).
        The video surveillance system is an important means for maintaining and ensuring the transportation safety of the subway. It provides visual information regarding the train operation for dispatchers of the control center, attendants of each station, and train drivers.


        Generally the metro monitoring system consists of two big parts, namely, the control center remote monitoring and the station site monitoring. A two level monitoring network is formed by employing the control center remote monitoring and the station site monitoring. The user may have access to real-time images and historical images according to the authorization at any station. In addition to the site monitoring, video signals of each station can be transmitted to the control center and the standby control center via Ethernet switch and transmission equipment of the station. After being received and decoded by the control center, the signals will be transmitted to the central video display equipment.
        The system supports the mixed HD and SD access management; therefore, the HD IP camera can be connected to CCTV network via VSMS (IPC secure access management server), which solves multiple problems, i.e., security isolation, IP address occupation, unicast and multicast conversion and compatibility of IPCs from multiple vendors . SD video is taken by analog camera and encoded by video encoder. Video encoders are installed at stations, parking lot, and equipment room of rail yard. All camera signals are collected in the local equipment room; after being encoded and compressed by a video encoder, the analog video signals will be transmitted to a (local or remote) decoder and a network video memory for storage.
      Video storage server is installed at each station and provided with corresponding storage disk array to realize local-storage of monitoring video. In order to obtain real-time monitoring images of high quality and low latency and to realize high quality and low bandwidth occupation in images storage, and for the convenience of future interconnection and interworking with other monitoring systems, the system supports dual-stream, i.e., one camera will use different encoding formats and code stream sizes, both encoded video streams of the camera support high quality full motion pattern (D1 resolution: 720X576, 25 FPS); while the high-definition low latency MPEG-2 encoded video stream is used for real-time monitoring, the high-definition and low bandwidth occupation MPEG-4 encoded video stream is used for video storage, which not only meets the requirement for high quality image storage, but also reduces the requirement for storage capacity and thus greatly saves investment.
        The system is able to support simultaneously three encoding modes, i.e., MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and H.264, and provides video package format as per the users’ requirements to facilitate users in secondary development; therefore, it is very easy to realize the interconnection and interworking with other third-party video encoding and decoding products.
Video analysis server is provided at each station to provide intrusion detection, stay (retention) detection, detection of suspicious objects left behind, retrograde motion detection, passenger chase and strenuous exercise monitoring, alerting of sudden passenger volume change, passenger volume statistics, identification, alerting and display of abnormal image, restructuring of scene, detection of elevator emergency stop and so on.
        A two-level control method is to be adopted by the whole monitoring system, i.e., local control by stations and the entire network control by the control center; management staff and operators at all levels are to manage and control the monitoring system within their authorities; moreover, high-priority users are entitled to deprive low-priority users of the control over resources and the system can display in real time the occupation of the PTZ device.

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